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From time to time, we become aware of books and scholarly articles on men’s concerns that we think might be of interest to the professional community. We make a special effort to identify public domain articles available in PDF form for download at no cost. We welcome your suggestions for additions to the list. Below we have listed some recent articles we thought you might find interesting along with their abstracts and the URLs at which they can be downloaded.

Bartholomew, K. & Horowitz, L. (1991) Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61:2, 226-244. A new 4- group model of attachment styles in adulthood is proposed. Four prototypic attachment patterns are defined using combinations of a person's self-image (positive or negative) and image of others (positive or negative). In Study l, an interview was developed to yield continuous and categorical ratings of the 4 attachment styles. Inter-correlations of the attachment ratings were consistent with the proposed model. Attachment ratings were validated by self-report measures of self-concept and interpersonal functioning. Each style was associated with a distinct profile of interpersonal problems, according to both self- and friend-reports. In Study 2, attachment styles within the family of origin. Results of study were replicated. The proposed model was shown to be applicable to representations of family relations; Ss' attachment styles with peers were correlated with family attachment ratings. Link

Bauer, J. J. & McAdams, D.P. (2004). Personal growth in adults’ stories of life transitions. Journal of Personality, 72:3, 573-602. This study identified four themes of personal growth (integrative, intrinsic, agentic, and communal) in adults’ stories of life transitions in careers and religions. Specific themes were expected to relate differentially to two forms of personality development (social- cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being) and to transition satisfaction. Integrative themes correlated primarily with social-cognitive maturity (ego development; Loevinger, 1976), whereas intrinsic themes correlated primarily with social-emotional well-being. Agentic-growth themes correlated primarily with transition satisfaction, whereas communal-growth themes correlated primarily with global well-being. Themes of agentic and communal growth also differentiated the two types of transitions studied—changes in careers and changes in religions—in ways that both supported and contradicted traditional notions of those transitions. We discuss these findings in terms of narrative meaning making, the mature and happy person, and intentional self-development via life transitions. Link

Bauman, R. & Leary, M.F. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117:3,  497-529. A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, non aversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation. Link

Blair, S.E.E.(2000). The centrality of occupation during life transitions. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63:5, 231-237. Link

Bushman, B. J. (2002). Does venting anger feed or extinguish the flame? Catharsis, rumination, distraction, anger, and aggressive responding. PSPB, 28:6, 724-731. Does distraction or rumination work better to diffuse anger? Catharsis theory predicts that rumination works best, but empirical evidence is lacking. In this study, angered participants hit a punching bag and thought about the person who had angered them (rumination group) or thought about becoming physically fit (distraction group). After hitting the punching bag, they reported how angry they felt. Next, they were given the chance to administer loud blasts of noise to the person who had angered them. There also was a no punching bag control group. People in the rumination group felt angrier than did people in the distraction or control groups. People in the rumination group were also most aggressive, followed respectively by people in the distraction and control groups. Rumination increased rather than decreased anger and aggression. Doing nothing at all was more effective than venting anger. These results directly contradict catharsis theory. Link

Collins, N.L. & Reed, S.J. (1990). Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58:4, 644-663. Three studies were conducted to examine the correlates of adult attachment. In Study 1, an 18-item scale to measure adult attachment style dimensions was developed based on Kazan and Shaver's (1987) categorical measure. Factor analyses revealed three dimensions underlying this measure: the extent to which an individual is comfortable with closeness, feels he or she can depend on others, and is anxious or fearful about such things as being abandoned or unloved. Study 2 explored the relation between these attachment dimensions and working models of self and others. Attachment dimensions were found to be related to self-esteem, expressiveness, instrumentality, trust in others, beliefs about human nature, and styles of loving. Study 3 explored the role of attachment style dimensions in three aspects of ongoing dating relationships: partner matching on attachment dimensions; similarity between the attachment of one's partner and care giving style of one's parents; and relationship quality, including communication, trust, and satisfaction. Evidence was obtained for partner matching and for similarity between one's partner and one's parents, particularly for one's opposite-sex parent. Dimensions of attachment style were strongly related to how each partner perceived the relationship, although the dimension of attachment that best predicted quality differed for men and women. For women, the extent to which their partner was comfortable with closeness was the best predictor of relationship quality, whereas the best predictor for men was the extent to which their partner was anxious about being abandoned or unloved. Link

Kellerman, P.F. (1994). Role reversal in psychodrama. In Karp, M., & Watson, M. (Eds.), Psychodrama Since Moreno, London: Routledge.  Link

Kellerman, P.F. (1987). Outcome research in classical psychodrama. Small Group Behavior, 18:4, 459-469. Various aspects of psychodrama outcome research are examined, and 23 outcome studies, published between 1952 and 1985, are summarized in tabular form and interpreted as a whole. Although the limitations of these studies are recognized, it is concluded that psychodrama constitutes a valid alternative to other therapeutic approaches, especially in promoting behavior change in adjustment, antisocial, and related disorders. Link

Lachman, M. (2004). Development in midlife. Annual Review of Psychology, 55: 305-331. The midlife period in the lifespan is characterized by a complex inter- play of multiple roles. The goal of this chapter is to summarize research findings on the central themes and salient issues of midlife such as balancing work and family responsibilities in the midst of the physical and psychological changes associated with aging. The field of midlife development is emerging in the context of large demographic shifts in the population. A section on the phenomenology of midlife development presents images and expectations including the seemingly disparate views of midlife as a time of peak functioning and a period of crisis. Conceptual frameworks useful for studying the multiple patterns of change in midlife are presented. Findings demonstrating patterns of gains and losses are reviewed for multiple domains: cognitive functioning, personality and the self, emotions, social relationships, work, and physical health. The need for future research to illuminate and integrate the diverse aspects of midlife is highlighted. Link

Line, B. & Cooper, A. (2002). Group therapy: essential component for success with sexually acting out problems among men. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 9, 15-32. Sexual acting out behavior has become a major issue in the United States, with more mental health care professionals seeking assistance in providing effective treatment for this complex and interesting population. Reviews of the literature support the fact that specialized treatments often can be effective (Schwartz, 1995); how- ever, without targeted interventions, recidivistic behaviors can be very high. Innovative approaches are all too uncommon. Many suggest group therapy is an essential, as well as cost-effective, component of a comprehensive treatment program (Schwartz, 1995; Freeman-Longo & Blanchard, 1998). In this article, a model for group therapy for men with a range of sexually acting out problems is presented. This semi-structured group therapy model combines psychodynamic cognitive-behavioral theoretical perspectives in a 16-week module in which structured exercises and group process-oriented interventions are employed. In this article we discuss group format, content, and process in an effort to elucidate the specific challenges and common issues of this population. Link

McAdams, D. (2006). The redemptive self: Generativity and the stories Americans live by. Research In Human Development, 3: 81-100.  Generativity is an adult’s concern for and commitment to promoting the development and well-being of future generations. A growing body of research has shown that individual differences in generativity are associated with particular patterns of parenting, social support, and religious and civic involvement. Research has also suggested that highly generative American adults tend to construct self-defining life stories (narrative identities) that feature the psychological theme of redemption 0 the deliverance from suffering to an enhanced status or position in life. Through stories of redemption, narrators often articulate how they believe they have experienced a “second chance” in life...Link

McCarthy, J. & Holliday, E. (2004) Help-seeking and counseling within a traditional male gender role: An examination from a multicultural perspective. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 25-30. A traditional male gender role reflects an affirmation of masculine identity associated with such qualities as success and self-reliance. This gender role is examined from a diversity perspective in counseling, because it may affect many men’s help-seeking attitudes and behaviors. Suggestions from the literature are reviewed from the standpoint of the Multicultural Counseling Competencies (P. Arredondo et al., 1996). The counseling profession would benefit from greater sensitivity in aiding men endorsing this role.175-187. Link

Mehia, X. (2005). Gender Matters: Working with adult male survivors of trauma. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83, 29-40. There has been a great deal of attention given to the application of feminist therapy in treating women, but there is little written about feminist therapy and its applications in treating men. Gender role analysis has proven to be effective in developing hope, resilience, and transcendence–3 primary sources in times of emotional distress. This article conceptualizes the treatment of men survivors of trauma at 2 levels: redefining masculinity and its legacies and confronting trauma and its legacies. Link

Moreno, J.L. (1946). Psychodrama and group psychotherapy. Sociometry, 9:2, I249-253. Jacob L. Moreno, widely regarded as the founder of group therapy and psychodrama, read this paper at the American Psychiatric Association meeting held on May 30, 1946 in Chicago, IL. Link

Roediger, H.L. (1990). Implicit memory: Retention without remembering. American Psychologist, 45:9, 1043-1056. Explicit measures of human memory, such as recall or recognition, reflect conscious recollection of the past. Implicit tests of retention measure transfer (or priming)from past experience on tasks that do not require conscious recollection of recent experiences for their performance. The article reviews research on the relation between explicit and implicit memory. The evidence points to substantial differences between standard explicit and implicit tests, because many variables create dissociations between these tests. For example, although pictures are remembered better than words on explicit tests, words produce more priming than do pictures on several implicit tests. These dissociations may implicate different memory systems that subserve distinct memorial functions, but the present argument is that many dissociations can be understood by appealing to general principles that apply to both explicit and implicit tests. Phenomena studied under the rubric of implicit memory may have important implications in many other fields, including social cognition, problem solving, and cognitive development. Link

Ryff, C. (1989). Happiness s everything or is it?” Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57:6, 1069-1081. Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this literature (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) were operationalized. Three hundred and twenty-one men and women, divided among young, middle-aged, and older adults, rated themselves on these measures along with six instruments prominent in earlier studies (i.e., affect balance, life satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, locus of control, depression). Resultsrevealed that positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, and personal growth were not strongly tied to prior assessment indexes, thereby supporting the claim that key aspects of positive functioning have not been represented in the empirical arena. Furthermore, age profiles revealed a more differentiated pattern of well-being than is evident in prior research. Link

Sanders, M. R., Halford, W. K., &  Behrens, B.C. (1999) Parental divorce and premarital couple communication. Journal of Family Psychology, 13:1, 60-74. On the basis of a social learning analysis, it was hypothesized that a history of parental divorce would predispose partners to difficulties in managing conflict. Ninety- three engaged couples were videotaped while they discussed two areas of conflict. Each partner then completed a video-mediated recall procedure, an assessment of cognition during the interactions, which was then coded and analyzed. As predicted, couples in which the woman's parents had divorced showed more negative communication and cognitions during conflict discussions than did couples in which neither partner's parents had divorced. Contrary to predictions, couples in which the man's parents had divorced did not differ from couples in which neither partner's parents had divorced. The current research shows that, at least for women, a history of parental divorce is associated with more negative couple communication before marriage. Link

Schachter, D. L. (1990). Perceptual Mechanisms of Implicit Memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 4:3, 244-256. Research examining the relation between explicit and implicit forms of memory has generated a great deal of evidence concerning the issue of multiple memory systems. This article focuses on an extensively studied implicit memory phenomenon, known as direct or repetition priming, and examines the hypothesis that priming effects on various tasks reflect the operation of a perceptual representation system (PRS) --a class classificatory schemes are discussed, and important conceptual and terminological issues are considered based subsystems that operate at a presemantic level and support nonconscious expressions of memory. Three PRS subsystems are examined: visual word form, structural description, and auditory word form. Pertinent cognitive, neuropsychological, and neurobiological evidence is reviewed, alternative classificatory schemes are discussed, and important conceptual and terminological issues are considered. Link

Schnurr, P., Spiro, A., Vielhauer, M., Findler, M., & Hamblen, J. (2002). Trauma in the lives of older men: Findings from the normative aging study. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 8:3, 175-187. Research on the prevalence of traumatic exposure has tended to focus on younger populations, limiting our knowledge about trauma and its effects in older adults. In this study, lifetime trauma exposure was assessed in a sample of 436 male military veterans of World War II and the Korean Conflict (age 59–92). A clinician-administered screening measure, the Brief Trauma Interview, was developed to assess lifetime exposure to 10 categories of trauma using DSM-IV criteria. PTSD was assessed in interview and questionnaires. De- spite a high prevalence of trauma exposure, symptom levels were relatively low. Few men met criteria for current or lifetime PTSD. Secondary analyses found that lifetime symptom severity was higher in men who met the DSM-IV A.2 criterion, in contrast with men who did not meet A.2. Findings indicate that trauma is highly prevalent among older men, although many may be asymptomatic. Link

Schwalbe, M.L. & Mason-Schrock,D. (2002) Identity work as group process. Advances in Group Process: 13: 113-147. This paper examines the process whereby groups create the signs, codes, rites of affirmation, and boundaries upon which the existence and maintenance of shared identities depend. We call this process subcultural identity work, arguing that it consists of four essential parts: Defining, coding, affirming and policing. Two empirical illustrations of subcultural identity work are offered - one derived from a study of men who used myth and poetry to remake “man as a moral identity, another derived from a study of transsexuals. Other studies of identity work are reviewed and discussed. The concepts of oppressive identity work and oppositional identity work are developed as tools for understanding the identity struggles that are often at the core of intergroup conflict. Link

Simon, R. & Nath, L. (2004). Gender and emotion in the united states. Do men and women differ in self-reports of feelings and expressive behavior? American Journal of Sociology, 5, 1137-1176. U.S. emotion culture contains beliefs that women are more emotional and emotionally expressive than men and that men and women differ in their experience and expression of specific emotions. Using data from the 1996 emotions module of the GSS, the authors investigate whether men and women differ in self-reports of feelings and expressive behavior, evaluating whether the patterns observed for men and women are consistent with cultural beliefs as well as predictions from two sociological theories about emotion and two sociological theories about gender. Surprisingly, self-reports do not support cultural beliefs about gender differences in the frequency of everyday subjective feelings in general. Men and women do, however, differ in the frequency of certain positive and negative feelings, which is explained by their difference in social position. The implications of the findings for theory and research on both gender and emotion are discussed. Link

Staudinger, U.M. & Bluck, S. (2001) A view on midlife development from life-span theory. In M.E. Lachman, M.E. (Ed.), Handbook of Midlife Development. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 3-39. Link

Tannen, D. (1999) You just don’t understand: Men and women in conversation. In Tannen, D., The workings of language: from prescriptions to perspectives. Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT: 110-115. Many men and women complain with frustration that they communicate on a different ‘wave length.’ Deborah Tannen, a sociolinguist, explains why men and women often talk past each other in a host of everyday situations. Link

Tashiro, T. & Frazier, P. (2003) “I’ll never be in a relationship like that again”: Personal growth following romantic relationship breakups. Personal Relationships, 10, 113-128. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of personal growth and distress following romantic relationships….Link

Wallerstein, J. & Lewis, J. (2004). The unexpected legacy of divorce: Report of a 25-year study. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21:3, 353-370. This follow-up study of 131 children, who were 3–18 years old when their parents divorced in the early 1970s, marks the culmination of 25 years of research. The use of extensive clinical interviews allowed for exploration in great depth of their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors as they negotiated child- hood, adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. At the 25-year follow-up, a comparison group of their peers from the same community was added. De- scribed in rich clinical detail, the findings highlight the unexpected gulf between growing up in intact versus divorced families, and the difficulties children of divorce encounter in achieving love, sexual intimacy, and commitment to marriage and parenthood. These findings have significant implications for new clinical and educational interventions. Link

Wethington, E. Expecting stress: Americans and “midlife crisis.” Motivation and Emotion, 24:2, 85-103. Despite frequent debunking of the inevitability of the midlife crisis in the research literature (e.g., D. A. Chiriboga, 1997; R. McCrae & P. Costa, 1990), the term remains a media staple, implying that midlife is a time of stress and difficulties brought about by turning 40. A recent review of midlife crisis research (O. G. Brim, 1992) concluded that midlife is not universally stressful and estimated that roughly only 10% of American men might undergo a midlife crisis. This paper examines the disjunction between popular and researcher views of midlife and its “crisis.” Using semi-structured telephone survey techniques, this study of 724 participants explores the definitions that Americans hold of the “midlife crisis” and analyzes self-reports of midlife crises. Most Americans (over 90%) could provide a definition of the midlife crisis, and these definitions roughly coincide with the definitions used in psychological and psychoanalytic theories of the midlife crisis. Twenty-six percent of Americans reported that they had a midlife crisis. Qualitative analyses showed that Americans use a much wider definition of what constitutes a midlife crisis than that used by researchers. Despite the identification of this term with male personality development, women were as likely as men to report having had a midlife crisis. In addition, crises occurring well before age 40 and well after age 50 were frequently nominated as midlife crises. Most participants did not attribute their self-reported midlife crises to aging, but rather to major life events that posed a severe threat and challenge during a very broadly-defined period of “midlife.” Link

Wethington, E. & Pixley, J. (2004). Turning points in adulthood. In Brim, O. & Kessler, R. (eds), How healthy are we? A national study of well-being in midlife. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 4586-613. Link

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